2020 - Excalibur Electric Racing kart

Functional Artist

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I added & am testing a DIY precharge circuit. :)
It's just a 10W 1KJ resistor & a momentary (micro) switch that is mounted across the contacts of the circuit breaker.

Here is a wiring diagram of it :sneaky:

* Notice how the switch is positioned/connected on the (VRC) or "restricted voltage" side of the resistor :2guns:

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I did a video to help explain & show how it works
...& also, a quick demo of it "in action" :cool:

 

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Functional Artist

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After getting most everything connected up, I precharged the system, engaged the circuit breaker & gave 'er a try
...but, the wheels went backwards :unsure:

So, I got out some of my old notes (for when I had ta switch the direction of rotation, on the 48V 1,800W Boma brushless motor)
...& did some re-arrangin' of the wires :sneaky:

Yup, that seems to work better :2guns:

 

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Functional Artist

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How to "do the math" to "size" a precharge resistor.

Let's use the 10W 1KJ resistor , that I installed on Excalibur, as an example :)

Current:
First, you have to figure out how much current will be flowing?
The basic equation is Volts = Amps x Resistance, V = I x R; In this case we know V and R, so we can calculate for current.
The basic equation is Current I = V/R= 60volts/1000 Ohms = 0.06 Amps. (the voltage divided by the resistance)
This will be the current flowing thru the resistor during inrush to fill the capacitors.

Power:
Next, is the resistor power rating adequately sized to handle this much current?
The basic equation is Power = I² x R , (the current squared, times the resistance)

Using the current as calculated above, and also, knowing the resistance, we come up with,
Power = (0.06 Amps) x (0.06 Amps) x 1000 Ohms = 3.6 Watts.

The numbers to precharge this 60V system would be
60V / 1,000 Ohms = 0.06A (current)
0.06A x 0.06A x 1,000 Ohms = 3.6W (power)

So, according to "the math", this 10W 1KJ resistor should be adequately sized to precharge this system. :cool:
 

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Next, we need to know how long it takes to precharge the cap's in this system. :popcorn:
...so, we know how long to "hold the button" since this is a manual precharge circuit
...& to be sure that the required duration is not too long.

If it is for a short period, then it might be okay
...but, if it is a long time then the resistor will get hot.

How to calculate this?

Knowing R and C, we can calculate the Inrush time ~= 6 x R x C.
...the R is the resistance of the resistor (1,000 Ohm)
... the C is the total capacitance of the capacitators in the SC (940uF)
(which are in micro Farads, uF & requires you to divide by a million. 1uF = 0.000001 Farads)

*Remember, when we looked inside of the controller, there were 2 blue caps in parallel with an unpopulated spot for a 3rd. (2x 470uF = 940uF)

Here is what the math would look like:
T = 6 x R (1,000) x C (940) / 1,000,000
...& then doing the math, 6 x 1,000 x 940 / 1,000,000 = 5.64 seconds

So, now we know the precharge needs to be engaged at least 6 seconds, to adequately precharge this system
...& if only "used" for short periods like this it shouldn't get too hot either :)
 

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Well, that's enough technical babble, for a minute :)
...anyone ready for some testin"?

First, let's get some RPM data on this 60V 2,000W brushless motor
...then, we'll get some MPH data

So, I got the RPM meter out & mounted the sensor on the frame, next to the sprocket
...then, stuck a magnet on the sprocket, to "signal" the sensor

Then, I precharged the circuit
...switched the breaker "on"
...switched the system "on"
...switched the RPM meter "on"
...switched the (3) speed switch into "low"
...activated the throttle pedal
...& let 'er "rip" :cool:

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Yup, I did a video to record the data :sifone:

* Donuts are @ the end :devil2:

 

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Functional Artist

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After reviewing the RPM data for this 60V 2,000W brushless motor
...powered by (5) 12V 15AH SLA's (~64V top charge)
...& running @ a 6:1 GR (10T motor & 60T sprocket)
I wanted to record the data that I came up with :cool:

* I took the readings off of the sprocket (axle)
...so, we have to multiply those RPM reading, by the gear ratio, to calculate the motor's speed (RPM's)

Unloaded: (axle) (motor)
Low: 580 3,480
Med: 762 4,572
High: 942 5,652

Loaded:
Low: 500 3,000
Med: 675 4,050
High: 830 4,980

(max or peak)
Loaded:
Low: 520 3,120
Med: 695 4,170
High: 861 5,166

The "unloaded" numbers were pretty consistent
...but, the "loaded" numbers fluxuated, a lot due to varying road conditions
...so, watching the video, I also, looked for & recorded the top (max) RPM reading for each speed :thumbsup:
 

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I finally got around to doin' some speed testing data while running @ 60V :)

Specs:
60VDC Battery pack (5- 12V 12AH SLA batteries with a top voltage level of ~64V) ;)
60V 3,000W Brushless motor
Gear Ratio is 6:1(10T drive sprocket & 60T driven sprocket)
Wheels are ~11" tall with a ~34" circumference (10.5x4.50-6 Unilli racing slicks)

So, it looks like this little kart does ~15MPH when in low speed
...~20MPH when @ med speed
...& she tops out @ ~25MPH :cool:

Here is my data collection video :sifone:

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Functional Artist

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Hi @Functional Artist
How does the performance compare to some of your other electric builds ?
Excalibur has the best performance, overall, of anything that I've built so far. ;)

The acceleration is awesome :cool:
...but, I must say, the top speed of "only" ~25MPH is very misleading, cause this thing really "flies" :auto:

The "Glexis" seems to be dialed in pretty good, cause the maneuverability is "superb".
* This is the first/only kart that, I've built or ridden, that can confidently take a turn "at full speed" :cheers2:

It seems that with this kart being so little/light & with the Akerman, Caster & Camber settings plus, with the weight of the driver & battery pack(s) nicely centered that when you turn the wheel, the COG shifts just "a bit"& she just "digs in" & turns without any noticeable understeer or oversteer, at all :banana:

*But, it's kinda hard on them front tires :eek:

The brakes work very well, for being just a band brake
...& they stop this kart quickly & firmly

So, in my opinion, the power to weight ratio (acceleration)
...& the power to brake ratio (braking) both seem good :sifone:SAM_7093.JPG
 
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