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Turn, Turn, Turn
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The front steering assembly for a go kart need not be a complicated connection.
First you'll need the steering shaft. It begins with the steering wheel, and terminates at the bottom with the Pitman arm. This arm is attached to the tie rods, and pushes them. The tie rods connect to the wheel spindles, aka the front axles.
Go Kart Spindles
In the front of the kart, the axles are known as spindles.
The spindles are pretty hard to fabricate, so if you're not an expert weldor, you can buy them. They are about $15 each.
The spindle is basically the steering connection to the axle. They are usually about 4 inches long, but can be longer or shorter if the wheels dictate.
Go Kart Tie Rods
The tie rod is the connection between the pitman arms and the spindles. They are the adjustable part of the linkage. You adjust the amount of "toe in" so that the go kart corners well. It's said that you want a slight toe in because this helps lift the inside tire when turning.
We have great articles on steering by people in the racing world that we'll link to soon that more eloquently explain this.
You can make your own tie rods, or buy them off the shelf. The trick for the tie rod is the end, which is threaded for the adjustment.
Go Kart Pitman Arm
This piece is what's at the end of your steering shaft. When you turn the steering wheel, the shaft turns. At the bottom is the pitman arm. This attaches to the tie rods and pushes them in the appropriate direction.